Here, you will find a vast multitude of materials useful for the art and science

of Biblical textual criticism. Material is added regularly so be sure to visit often.

-- Scroll down (way down) to view my chart of Greek ligatures

and other minuscule script informations --

Wilcken Schubart Gardthausen Youtie Aland Metzger Tebtunis Karanis Tischendorf Tregelles Souter Sahidic Bohairic Palestinian Aramaic inspiration Pickering Husselman Mitteis Preisigke Philology Greco-Roman Inschriften Papyrusurkunden Chrestomathie

this page copyrighted by Mr. Gary S. Dykes © 2006

Wilbur N. Pickering family 35

To view some portions of this area of the website properly, you may want

to download and install the following fonts:




These are quality crafted, hinted and embeddable fonts, and are free to

use in any other way! Right click on each (above) to download,

then copy each into your fonts folder - [C:\windows\fonts], restart your computer,

and they are hopefully installed! (on some machines (XP) you may need to actually

install the font, more than just copying to the fonts folder, a free and easy to use

font installer is available on my "Softwares" page)

Schubart Hunger Wilcken Wessely Turner Husselman Preisigke Treu


Via over 100 manuscripts, all variants demonstrated - line by line, in a horizontal manner.

Including Old Latin and Bohairic mss. !! Easy to use format!!

SIZE: about 13  MB  --- 21 pages  -- PDF format

editor: Mr. Gary S. Dykes (with assistance via Mr. Imlay)

file name: One_Ephesians.pdf

This one chapter required several months to format, so enjoy the work, it includes many MANUSCRIPTS which the IGNTP folks have NOT used in their massive effort on Ephesians.




for years the TR and the Majority Text have been my preferred Greek texts. However Wilbur Pickering's Family 35 edition, with its unique apparatus, supplants them. The printed volume is a  beautiful production suitable for the wonderful contents. Read and enjoy this genuine Greek text, based upon minuscule 35, which now resides in Paris: it is of the 11th century and contains the Pauline Epistles, as well as the rest of the NT. Below I provide a digital copy of this text. The entire actual manuscript (not the printed book!) can be viewed here:

Coislin 199 | Gallica (

I present 1/2 of a sample page here  --  of Ephesians chapter 1, page 267 --- click on thumbnail
for a close up view of the script:


Manuscript 35 is part of a closely allied group (of at least 50 mss) of manuscripts all displaying the majority text-type. Some of the other related MSS are: ms 18, ms 2080, ms 876, ms 1765, ms 2243, ms 547, ms 1117. ms 2765, ms 201, et cetera. Fortunately it is one of the manuscripts used in the on-going IGNT project on Ephesians. Pickering's Greek text is available in a nice softcover edition, available on Amazon:
The Greek New Testament According to Family 35: Pickering, Wilbur N.: 9780997468687: Books  it is about $26.00.

and the digital file is here, (this is the actual full Greek New Testament):

F35_Greek text.pdf 

the NT file is file is 12.5 MB and is about 345 pages. THIS is the PREFERRED Greek NT.

An important essay by Wilbur N. Pickering shows WHY a correct Greek text is absolutely required:


it is only 302 KB and is 30 pages - a great read!!!


Recentiores non Deteriores

SIZE: about 7 MB - - - 11 images in a PDF file

author: R. Browning (Robert ?) Date, 1960.

An authorative article in which the author illuminates the type of ancient materials Byzantine scribes would copy and archive. This article is well researched and is often overlooked. PDF file name:



Recognizing God's Word

author: Mr. Gary S. Dykes

size: 382,582 bytes - - - 18 pages - - - PDF format

I work hard at trying to produce materials which promote or clarify God's Word. And for me it is a lot of work. This essay is very important as it makes clear how any elected person (a believing Christian) can understand God's Word as it appears in nearly any translation, or as it appears scattered amongst numerous manuscripts or variant readings. It is encouraging to know that God's Word is there, in its entirety, for any believer to access; it is a supernatural gift from God to His children! Always and fully preserved.




inecke Emmel Welles Brice Jones Harvard Susan A. Stephens P 49 Yale


SIZE: 938,987 bytes -- CONTAINS 60 pages (PDF)

author: Mr. Gary S. Dykes

Blindly accepting Greek readings from ancient papyri from Egypt, is not always sane. These penetrating essays caution textual critics and translators! Introductory information on the Greek manuscript families of the New Testament is presented along with cutting edge data!!. This is part 2 of a larger work in progress. Contains three essays in a single file.

file name: Text_types_part2.pdf

ha, Jeffery John



A Trilogy

SIZE: 484,241 bytes --- CONTAINS 44 pages (PDF)

author: Mr. Gary S. Dykes

All three essays collected into one pdf file with a new preface. These essays cover my views on Translation Ethics and the practice of Biblical Textual Criticism today. I hold no punches. A good reality check for those who make translations or who examine MS variants. A good handout for students as well! (Should generate valuable discussions!)

See also, BUBBLES, below!!!




A Review of Jeffery John Kloha's Dissertation of 2006, titled:

"A Textual Commentary on Paul's First Epistle to the Corinthians"

size: 146,989 bytes - - - CONTAINS 8 pages (PDF)

author: Mr. Gary S. Dykes

This vast effort by Dr. Khola partly parallels my own on-going effort. Thus I am in a good position to review this disserataion.



On the Nature of Biblical Textual Criticism

SIZE: 152,836 bytes --- CONTAINS 12 pages (PDF)

author: Mr. Gary S. Dykes

A short explosive essay which proposes a corrected paradigm, a true and edifying purpose for the craft of Biblical textual criticism. An indictment against the current state of Biblical textual criticism. A must read!! Written by a man who has practiced and observed Biblical textual criticism for over 20 years, and one who is also a man of faith. This file is also contained in the "Trilogy" pdf file, above.

In response to a request, I provide some samples of "bubbles" (mentioned in the above essay). And yes, I have my helmet on!

BUBBLES ---- 61,958 bytes, 8 pages PDF


Dating the Apostle John's Writings

SIZE: 66,705 bytes ---- CONTAINS 2 pages (PDF)

author: Mr. Gary S. Dykes

A brief introduction to a larger work of mine (The Primary Audience of the Apostle John), this file has 15 reasons why John wrote in the A.D. 90-98 range. Again brief, but pointed.

Borland's Collation of the Robinson/Pierpont and the Farstad/Hodges Majority Texts

author: Jonathan Borland

HTML file, circa 2003. Used via permission of Mr. Borland. A fine work and easy to use, instantly see all variations between these fine editions of the Majority Text.



Ligatures and Tachygraphy: including numerous PRINTED ligatures


Manuscript Provenances and Locales [under construction]


SCRIPT MENSURATION (script analyses), NEW cutting-edge RESEARCH

Did such and such a scribe write such and such a manuscript? How can you be sure? Did scribe X also write another manuscript? Via this revolutionary analysis method, you can determine for certain, if the same scribe wrote any of one or more manuscripts. Anyone with a computer monitor can begin to mensurate (measure) and analyze a scribe's writing. Currently the system only works for Greek minuscule scripts.




More Palaeographical Items, TOOLS, and ESSAYS - -

(such as an archive copy of Kim's 1988 essay on the dating of papyrus P- 46, and charts of various Greek letter forms illustrating periods of Greek manuscript production, et al).




Modern Textual Criticism, Its Genesis and Retardation

author: Mr. Gary S. Dykes

SIZE: 1.5 MB - - - 41 pages - - - PDF

My first award winning essay! (And perhaps my last). An interpretation of the history of Biblical TC, its rise and its problems. Lots of research contained herein.




More Tips on Dating Minuscule Mansucripts





In the PDF paper (below) it is seen that Mr. Gary Dykes was the first scholar to indicate that many of the distigmai in Codex Vaticanus (03) suggest/indicate variants seen only in the Byzantine text-type. I made this discovery in 2006, a year before Payne, Canart and P. Head saw the light. As usual no credit is given. In 2006, "umlaut" was the designation for many of these "double-dots". Later research has improved my initial observations.

Using the "Umlauts" of Codex Vaticanus to Dig Deeper

SIZE: 164,676 bytes ---- CONTAINS 10 pages (PDF)

author: Mr. Gary S. Dykes

DATE: 2006

The implications of this simple essay are profound! I believe the term "umlauts" has been made obsolete, and a newer term employed.



Palaeographical Dating of P-46

SIZE: 99,551 bytes ---- CONTAINS 11 pages (PDF)

author: Dr. Bruce Griffin

This is the paper delivered to the 1996 SBL meeting in New Orleans, which strongly opposes Kim's early dating of papyrus P46. Griffin shines herein!





IMPORTANT Textual Criticism TERMS defined

a HTML file: by Mr. Gary S. Dykes

Also a handy (printable) PDF file is available. Download it and print it, it is also handy for teaching situations as a handout. [Printed version has been greatly improved (2013).] Click on the PDF FILE icon below.

PDF file, 17 pages, size: about 96 KB (small !)

PDF file of the above HTML file it is named ----TERMS_defined.pdf


H. von Soden's MSS citation keys

manuscript number conversion charts for Acts - Revelation. Enables CORRECT reading of Von Soden's actual apparatuses. Contains two charts - Praxapostolos and Revelation. When Von Soden shows a 76f, you can now correctly recognize what manuscript the "f" is. Original charts produced in Germany, and shared with me by Klaus Witte of the Institute in Münster. I reformatted the charts.

These charts enhance and correct works by Merk and others.




The Doctrine of Inerrancy and the Manuscript Variants

SIZE: 75,267 bytes ---- CONTAINS 11 pages (PDF)

author: Mr. Gary S. Dykes

Instead of avoiding the reality of variants, I suggest believers USE them. Good reading, IMPORTANT.

A very important document, especially for genuine saints!! This is also one of the three files collected into the "Trilogy" PDF file, above.


A List of PRINTED Greek New Testament editions up to 1887. From Isaac Hall, as published in Philip Schaff's work. A scanned copy.

a HTML file, contains several images of actual Greek New Testaments of by-gone days.

The above link takes you to a very nice labor of love by Robert Waltzman. If the link does not link you to the site, then...copy and paste it into your browser. The site is loaded with useful material. It is an Encyclopedia of Textual Criticism. Very helpful!! Its last update was in 2007.




click to return to main / home page  













["Praxapostolos" generally means the books of Acts, the Catholic Epistles, and the Pauline Epistles]


This key provides referrers to von Soden's apparatus with a means by which they

can accurately note which manuscripts he is referring to when he shows

witnesses as:



The ...ff indicates that he is referring ALSO to two additional manuscripts which

follow d180. What are these two manuscripts? I have actually seen

people use Merk's Greek New Testament (in his introduction) to discover the

identity, this gives an error. Merk does NOT follow von Soden's manuscript

order. In the chart below, for the Praxapostolos, the next two manuscripts

below d180 are MSS 2127, 808. Thus, here, von Soden's apparatus shows

three witnesses, MSS 1319, 2127 and 808 ( = d180ff). Not all of von Soden's MSS are listed

below, but as many as could be are, each order matches his citations.

The columns with no title, are of course the equivalent modern Gregory numbers.

I have no such list for the gospel manuscripts.






H   Ia1   Ia3   Ib1   Ic1   K  
d1 B (03) d5 D (05) d156 226 d206 242 a114 1852 a3 P (025)
d2 ¢ (01) d268 431 d157 547 d264 536 a116 2138 a5 L (020)
d3 C (04) a7 1874 d180 1319 d369 941 a158 1245 a6 H (014)
d4 A (02) a65 1836 d202 2127 d600 296 a208 1611    
d6 y (044) a70 1875 d203 808 d602 522 a370 1108    
d48 33 a101 181 d254 1 a62 1891 a551 1518    
d356 6 a200 88 d259 330 a161 635 a1436 2005   © GSD
a3 P (025) a264 917 d300 218 a253 2815        
a74 1175 a382 915 d353 999 a365 206        
a78 1739 a1001 E (08) d354 2093 a396 1758 Ic2      
a103 104 a1026 D (06) d355 38 a398 429 d101 506    
a114 1852 a1027 D (06a)* d372 263 a472 1831 d299 2147    
a162 81 a1028 G (012) d454 794 a1005 0120 a69 221    
a257 326 a1029 F (010) d457 209     a154 1867    
a1018 0173 a1066 1912 d505 69 Ib2   a169 639    
a1019 <20 a1100 1829 d507 241 d152 491 a174 255    
a1022 H (015) pr 11 307 a55 920 d260 440 a203 203    
a1031 0121 - 20 36 a56 1835-2004 d309 35 a258 378    
a1034 <13 - 21 610 a64 1845 d361 935 a353 383    
a1042 0172 - 40 453 a106 177 d368 823 a356 876    
a1044 <15     a113 919 d370 1149 a364 614    
a1045 <16 Ia2   a164 1738 a78 1739 a466 257    
O 12 424 d251 927 a170 1311 a157 323 a468 1610    
    d453 5 a172 436 a171 2298 a470 913    
    d459 489 a174 255 a209 1872 a486 1765    
    a173 623 a192 1837 a469 216 a506 385    
    a175 1838 a205 337            
    a184 2143 a216 256            
    a252 1873 a359 462            
    a367 1827 a361 1525            
    a502 467 a394 2180            
        a397 460            
        a464 1522            
        a552 642            

* a copy of 06, a1120 is another copy of 06 (per von Soden's terminology)







H   Ia2   Ia5   Ib1   K  
d2 ¢ (01) d600 296 a54 2028 Oa41 1778 a1070 046
d3 C (04) a10 2059 a59 2069 a406 2080    
d4 A (02) a20 1 a60 2033     Kc  
a3 P (025) a63 2066 a65 2068 Ib2   a13 2040
a1074 <18 a1578 181 a500 2054 d200 922 a55 920
a1075 0169 a1670 1894     a103 104 a209 1872
            a104 459 a402 1859
I   Ia3   Ia6   a400 628 a1374 2027
d505 69 d309 35 a43 743        
a3 P (025) a41 2031 a52 2067 Io1   Ko  
a1072 2351 a49 2056 a53 2055 O 10 250 d95 175
a1073 2329 a1581 209 a62 2664 O 12 424 d206 242
a1573 2020         O 21 1862 O 11 314
a1576 2057 Ia4   Ia7   a202 1828 O 12 617
a1579 2016 a40 2036 a56 2023 a404 172 O 14 91
    a51 2014 a501 432     O 15 1934
Ia1   a57 2043 a1588 2061 Io2   a216 256
a21 2081 a504 1876 a1594 60 O 30 468 a1579 2016
a22 2286 a1580 2015     a107 42 a1582 2017
a31 598 © GSD       a111 325    
a42 2060         a214 517    
a501 2026                
a503 2065                




H. von Soden further categorized many of his Byzantine text-type witnesses

into several sub-groups, denoted by variations of his K symbol. Some are

shown above in the key for Revelation - Ko and Kc.

A recent investigation of von Soden's Kr group, has greatly expanded the

number of MSS falling within this group which von Soden first discovered.

It is seen in the gosepl manuscripts, and according to von Soden it is not known

("unverkennbar" - page 1918, volume 3, Die Schriften des Neuen Testaments) or as yet studied

in the Pauline corpus. Via research done on the gospel of Luke (via the IGNTP) and

noted by Frederik Wisse, The Profile Method for the Classification and Evaluation of

Manuscript Evidence as applied to the continuous Greek text of The Gospel of Luke,

pages 92ff.; more than 200 MSS fit into this group. Bascially it is a group of Greek minuscule MSS

written in (or distinctive in) the 12th century. It is identifiable by its text, its use of various

liturgical apparatuses, and by certain similarities which von Soden was able to

quickly note when categorizing his witnesses (such as the inclusion, or placement

of John 7:53 - 8:11, -- the woman caught in adultery).

This large group clearly indicates that the Byzantine scholars were (and apparently had

been for some time) bringing the text of the Greek New Testament into a single standard form.

I refer to this as the Byzantine Ecclesiastical Standard, and it began being formed

probably in the late 9th century.


This Kr group reflects the standard, especially for scribes loyal to Constantinople and its orthodoxy.

For copyists and scribes in the outlying areas (such as North Africa, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Calabria,

Sicily, et cetera), some departure may be noted from the "standard" text-type. These minuscule manuscripts

are usually referred to as "provincial" {i.e. outlying regions}. Recognizing a MS as provincial is a fine

evaluation factor -- the provinciality of a witness-- for within these basic Byzantine text-type

manuscripts will be found other readings from various sources. Some of which

may be very early, some due to intentional changes, some due to dialectical alterations,

some from the influence of the Latin liturgy, and some from exemplars of ancient antiquity,

perhaps even the proto-Byzantine text-type!

There is room for much research in each of these areas, especially in the Pauline corpus.









Hopefully each reader has had the opportunity to examine various minuscule manuscripts

of the Greek New Testament. It is not long before odd appearing characters hinder your

reading of the text. What you are seeing is ligatures and abbreviations and various other types of tachygraphy.

Tachy- (from the Greek for "quick") and -graphy (from the Greek for "write") is speed-writing.

It is parallel to our modern stenography. Ligatures are the fusion of several letters into one new

form, I have seen as many as eight letters so joined.


In Greek manuscripts, tachygraphical writing has been around since the early papyri days

(pre A.D.). Some of its earliest uses were for keeping accounts. From the fourth century

A.D. onwards it was used in the Byzantine empire, at first for the "taking of dictation.

recording sermons and the minutes of church councils". (per The Oxford

Dictionary of Byzantium, volume 3, s.v. "tachygraphy").


MS 927. I Corinthians 9:8-12. date A.D. 1133.

...sqiei? mh kata anqrwpon tauta lalw h ouci kai o nomoj tauta legei.

en gar tw Mwusewj nomw gegraptai ou fimwseij boun alownta.

mh twn bown mellei tw Qew? h di hmaj pantwj legei. di hmaj gar

Egrafh oti ep elpi di ofeilei o arotriwn arotrian. kai o a

lown thj elpidoj autou metecein ep elpidi. ei uÌmeij umin

ta pneumatika espeiramen; mega ei hmeij umwn ta sarkika qeri

somen? ei alloi thj exousiaj hmwn metecouisin; ou mallon hmeij


--- Thank you David Robert Palmer, for your correction! and your sharp eye! ---


The film of the above manuscript is available from the Library of Congress. The

actual manuscript is currently lodged in the J. Paul Getty Museum in southern California,

where for all intents and purposes it is inaccessible.

Just below the image is a transcription (with the ligatures "resolved")

of the numerous tachygraphical forms seen in the seven lines as shown of this minuscule:



Much can be discerned from just this small sample. Note that this scribe

used a low dot for a comma, he occasionally spells phonetically mellei for melei, it is also

apparent that he is an expert scribe. In fact we have several of his works surviving.


Certain ligatures can signal much information. An expert palaeographer can determine which

school of writing the scribe was trained in, and can often determine where the scribe was

trained. Several scriptoriums were famous for their styles, this present writer finds

the scriptorium at the Grottaferrata (north of Calabria, in Italy proper), to be of

great importance, it had a wide influence on the writing styles seen in numerous

minuscule manuscripts of the New Testament.


One interesting, and fairly common mark is the double "slashes" seen above

the mh in line #1. No one knows for sure its exact meaning, but the late

Professor John Chadwick of Cambridge, suggested to me that it may just indicate

a pause before the word, or that it affected the pronunciation. Whatever its

precise use, it does not affect the semantics.



Other scriptoriums which leave marks and clues

via their scripts and styles are (in or at): the Stoudios, Sicily, Laconia, Rome,

Calabria, Capuae (and Grottaferrata), Athos, Crete, Cyprus, Chalce and others.


Below are a few samples of ligatures, as seen in MSS (in particular in the text of I Corinthians)

of the NT. Other such charts can be found in the standard works on Greek palaeography.*

It is suggested that you make your own charts as you study each MS. To accurately read or collate

Greek MSS which contain numerous tachygraphical conventions, the critic MUST be familiar

with this type of writing.



In the above, several numbers after some forms are seen, these are the

Gregory numbers of the MSS which display that form.



In 1541 early typographers strived to reproduce the beauty of handwritten

manuscripts, thus they copied certain exemplars as best as they could.

The above copy of a copy, is of the famous "Appian Alexandrini Romanarum

Historiarum" printed in Paris in 1551 by the Estiennes. The font was cut

by Garamond. Many judges consider this one of the best Greek fonts

ever cut! It also contains the fullest assortment of Greek ligatures

of any other known cut font. The font is called "Grecs du Rois". Garamond

carefully copied the handwriting of the professional writer - Angelos Vergetios.

As time passed, the number of ligatures diminished, readability improves and

we evolve to the present state where few if any are employed today.


However, to assist those who may have some difficulty reading older printed Greek

New Testaments I supply the images below. Thumbnails are included so that

you can click on the thumbnail and download the image, to print.





* perhaps still one of the best (though dated) resources for ligatures and abbreviations in the Greek

manuscripts would be:

Abbreviations in Greek Inscriptions: Papyri, Manuscripts, and Early Printed Books.

compiled by, Al. N. Oikonomides. Reprinted by Ares Publishers, Chicago, 1974


Microsoft® has made available as a free download a PDF file with a portion of this

volume, that one wherein minuscule tachygraphical forms and ligatures are indicated.

By no means comprehensive, but covers many forms especially of the

South Italian scriptoriums. Click title to download PDF file:



file is a PDF of about 3.5 MB








This is not meant to be an exhaustive treatment, but just a collection of tips which can assist with

the estimation of the date of various minuscule manuscripts of the New Testament.


It is probably best to divide the minuscule manuscripts into several time periods, each with some basic

identifiers. One common division (W.H.P. Hatch) is to break up the mass of surviving

minuscule witnesses into four periods, based solely upon the scripts:






From beginning of ninth to the middle of the tenth century (A.D. 800 - A.D. 950). Writing usually on the line, nicely formed and legible letters. The "iota adscript" is not rare. Uncial forms of - E; G; H; N; S are common. Somewhat common too are these uncials, D; L; P; ä Some ligatures seen. Breathings are always square.

MS 1900-circa 875

Homily-dated 1004


From the middle of the tenth, to A.D. 1200. Many varieties of scripts, some not so legible. The letters are usually pendant from the line. Sometimes "iota adscript" is seen (i.e. the final iota, or those in the so-called improper diphthongs, written on the same line as is the rest of the word(s)). Gradually the iota is placed "iota subscript" (written below the line of text) especially as one enters into the twelfth century. Uncial forms for E; T; Q are common and include those listed in First Period above. Round breathings begin to appear in the latter part of the tenth century, but in this period both [rounded and square] are seen, often in the same passage. The use of ligatures is on the increase in this period.


MS 1270-circa 1050

MS 1734-dated 1015



From A.D. 1200 to the middle of the fifteenth century. (A.D. 1450). After the Latin conquest of Constantinople (A.D. 1204) the minuscule script began a decline in quality. Depending upon the scribe, it may be neat or very difficult to read. The script is usually pendant. Iota adscript is very rare. The above listed uncials (in the First and Second Periods) are seen much more often as uncials. The minuscule hand became more cursive, and often with wild flourishes. Many abbreviations and ligatures are used. Some really "odd" scripts are seen in this period, a few are of outstanding quality.


MS 945-circa 1250 [note rare iota adscript for this period]


Aland's date for this MS (945) is an error: it is not 11th century. There is seen, in another later hand, a brief note dated at A.D. 1591 on folio 344v.


From A.D. 1450 to A.D. 1600. The script declined further in quality. I rarely use such late manuscripts from this period, though there are several good ones (MSS 5 and 69). Some of these scripts served as models for early printed texts.

L 1029-dated 1594
A lectionary MS, now in Walters Art Gallery, MS #535.


Several of the dates extend beyond Hatch's as the styles are known

to linger. William Henry Paine Hatch's entire comments can be

found in his: Facsimiles and Descriptions of Minuscule Manuscripts

of the New Testament. Harvard University Press, 1951.


Besides the above few tips, the style of the ornamentations and of the illuminations (if present)

can also add dating data, which is the subject of the next page - (below, which is being created).

The liturgical apparatuses also add hints: some calendars mention various

"saints days" which can play a factor in

dating a text, especially if the liturgical apparatus

is current with the production of the primary Biblical text.


Certain ligatures and letter forms, themselves, can also serve to validate a dating estimate.

A certain style (or, ductus) as shown in the above samples, also suggest a date.

It should be borne in mind, that we are attempting to estimate the date, so we are

looking to be within 100 years of the actual date. Such estimates are often easy to make.

However, some scripts are so singular

and devoid of hints, that an estimate based upon the script

is a total conjecture, of course in such cases other factors are considered.


OTHER DATING FACTORS: illuminations,

and ornamentations.


We begin with viewing an image. An image taken from a Greek manuscript,

Sinai 339, dated to about 1136-1155. It consists of 16 Liturgial Homilies of

Gregory of Nazianzus. The monk who created the beautiful manuscript was

Joseph Hagioglykerites, and it was made apparently at the Pantocrator in

Constantinople. In 1550, it was brought to the Monastery at Mt. Sinai. It is

featured in: The Monastery of Saint Catherine at Mount Sinai; The

Illuminated Greek Manuscripts. Volume One: From the Ninth to the

Twelfth Century. Kurt Weitzmann and George Galavaris. Princeton

University Press, 1990. In this work it is MS # 56.


I reproduced a portion of this image from the above publication, (hopefully

under fair use). I selected this color image for one primary reason. It is a fine

sample of the artwork seen in typical Constantinopolitan ateliers. Thus, it

is presented so that the viewer can see the rich colors and the detailed

art work. These colors and their fine craftsmanship are important features of manuscripts

produced in Constantinople, or by an artist trained in Constantinople.

The bright blue, and bright gold colors are seen in the best of the

manuscripts produced in Constantinople. Their quality provides a clue as to

the origin of any manuscripts with such illuminations!